The main danger of the advanced stage rectal cancer is the development of intestinal obstruction (a complete block of the intestine, resulting in the block of food passage), and the ability to metastasize in the surrounding lymph nodes and other organs. Fortunately, today even the most complex forms of rectal cancer can be treated successfully.
What is Colorectal Cancer?
Colorectal cancer is cancer found in the colon or rectum. Colon and rectal cancers are often grouped because of similar features. Colorectal cancer is presented by a tumor that originates from the cells of the large intestine.
When a tumor is found in the mucous layers of the intestine, surgical intervention is performed. If a rectal cancer tumor is small, it is removed with a colonoscopy.
When the tumor penetrates the muscle layers, surgery is performed with complete or partial excision of the affected area.
In general, the side effects of surgery include pain in the area of the intervention. The surgery can also cause constipation or diarrhea, which usually goes away after some time.
Many people need to retrain their bowels after surgery, which, of course, takes time.
- Radiation therapy
If the tumor has grown through all layers of the intestine or metastases are found in the nearby lymph nodes, radiation therapy is administered before its removal.
The side effects of radiation therapy can include fatigue, mild skin reactions, indigestion, and loose bowel movements. Most of the side effects disappear soon after treatment ends.
This method of treatment is used in case of the advanced stages of the disease. Chemotherapy is prescribed both independently and in combination with radiation therapy before or after surgery and radiation therapy.
Chemotherapy can cause nausea, diarrhea, neuropathy, or ulcers. However, medications are available to treat these side effects.
Why does rectal cancer occur?
There is no specific reason that would explain the oncological process in the rectum. Clinical research identifies two main risk factors: dietary habits and hereditary features. There are also other factors influencing the occurrence of the diagnosis:
- Detection of a polyp larger than 1 cm
- Detection of more than 2 polyps
- Dysplastic processes in the mucous membrane of the colon at the site of removal of the polyp
Dysplasia refers to the presence of cells with atypia. The cells are not malignant, but they are capable of transforming.
Other risk factors of the disease:
- Features of nutrition
The prevalence of animal fats and protein, simple carbohydrates and low proportion of fiber in the diet are the risk factors for colorectal cancer. It is believed that these food components change the metabolism and composition of bile acids, as well as the qualitative and quantitative composition of the intestinal microflora, thereby increasing the risk of disease.
- Obesity and overweight
- Alcohol consumption
The likelihood of colorectal cancer increases with age and targets the older age group.
- Lack of physical activity
- Genetic factors
Prevention and life prognosis
There is a possibility that cancer cells will remain in the body even after successful treatments. They are so small that it is difficult to detect them. However, they are the resources of a possible relapse.
Rectal cancer prevention includes the following measures:
- A balanced diet high in fiber
- Prophylactic colonoscopy for early detection of polyps or chronic inflammation
- Stress avoidance, adequate sleep and physical activity
- Minimal exposure to carcinogens
- The immune system support
Best hospitals for rectal cancer treatment
The right choice of treatment center is important. We created a list of the best hospitals for treatment for rectal cancer to help you pick the best medical facility for your diagnosis:
- University Hospital Duesseldorf, Germany
- University Hospital of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany
- University Hospital Ulm, Germany
- Primus Super Speciality Hospital New Delhi, India
- University Hospital Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Booking Health’s goal is to make the organization of the treatment easier for you by providing the following services:
- Communication with the clinic
- Translation of medical documents
- Help in applying for a visa for patients
- Flight and accommodation booking
- Interpreting services
To find out whether the price, the specific treatment for rectal cancer, or the hospital is right for you, leave a request on Booking Health, and we will contact you shortly.